<ol> <li><h2>Interior &amp; Exterior insulation</h2> <img src="../img/zeh/interior-exterior-insulation.jpg" alt="Interior &amp; Exterior insulation"><br> <strong>Exterior insulation</strong> (R-10 value) thermally encases the <strong>Zero Energy Home</strong>. <br> This allows the masonry to be precooled during daytime hours when the <br> sun is shining brightly and the <strong>PV system</strong> output is at <strong>maximum power</strong>. The<br> precooled concrete walls help maintain indoor comfort<br> into the late afternoon and evening. <strong>Interior insulation</strong><br> (R-30 value) lines the attic </li> <li><h2>Infiltration Prevention Mechanisms</h2> <img src="../img/zeh/infiltration-prevention-mechanisms.jpg" alt="Infiltration Prevention Mechanisms"></li> <li><h2>Low Friction Duct System</h2> <img src="../img/zeh/low-friction-duct-system.jpg" alt="Low Friction Duct System"><br> Interior-mounted, oversized ducts - positioned within the<br> air-conditioned space as opposed to the hot attic - are<br> used in the <strong>Zero Energy Home</strong> to great advantage.<br> Oversizing the ducts allows high air flow and low friction<br> loss (previously shown to provide as much as 12%<br> improvement in <strong>cooling efficiency</strong> at essentially no extra cost) </li> <li><h2>Efficient Pumping Systems</h2> <img src="../img/zeh/efficient-pumping-systems.jpg" alt="Efficient Pumping Systems"></li> <li><h2>Backup Photovoltaic System</h2><img src="../img/zeh/photovoltaic-system.jpg" alt="Photovoltaic System"></li> <li><h2>Efficient Appliances &amp; Lighting</h2><img src="../img/zeh/efficient-appliances-lighting.jpg" alt="Efficient Appliances &amp; Lighting"> <br> High-efficiency appliances and lighting further minimize<br> the <strong>Zero Energy Home</strong>'s electrical load. These appliances<br> and lighting also release less heat into the home while<br> operating, which decreases the cooling load that must be<br> met by the air-conditioning system and results in less PV<br> capacity required to meet the home's total electrical load. </li> <li> <h2>Light Exterior Color</h2> <p><img src="../img/zeh/light-exterior-color.jpg" alt="Light Exterior Color"> <br> The reflective white-tile roof on the <strong>Zero Energy Home</strong> <br> serves to replace the locally popular gray/brown asphalt<br> shingles on the control home. Both homes have R-30 <br> <strong>fiberglass insulation</strong> in the attic, but the <strong>Zero Energy<br> Home</strong>'s attic remains significantly cooler during peak<br> temperatures.</p> </li> <li><h2>Efficient High SEER AC System</h2> <p><img src="../img/zeh/efficient-high-seer-ac-system.jpg" alt="Efficient High SEER AC System"> <br> As told, the combination of efficiency features reduces the<br> cooling loads so that a downsized air conditioner suffices.<br> The small size of this system (half that of the control<br> home) is highly unusual for such a large home (2,425 <br> square feet) in Lakeland, Florida, but it is performing to<br> expectations.</p> </li> <li> <h2><strong>Solar Water Heater</strong> System</h2> <p><img src="../img/zeh/solar-water-heater-system.jpg" alt="Solar Water Heater System"> <br> The <strong>solar water heating</strong> system supplies most of the hot<br> water for occupant needs. Its energy output is equivalent<br> to that of a 2-kW PV system.</p> </li> <li> <h2>High Performance Windows</h2> <p> <img src="../img/zeh/high-performance-windows.jpg" alt="High Performance Windows" width="141" height="202"><br> The <strong>Zero Energy Home</strong>'s windows account for almost<br> one-fifth of the <strong>energy savings</strong> (for cooling). The advanced<br> solar control windows are spectrally selective, which<br> means that they transmit much of the light transmission in the<br> infrared and ultraviolet portions (which causes<br> overheating and fading of interior materials).</p> </li> <li> <h2>Programmable Thermostat</h2> <p> <img src="../img/zeh/programmable-thermostat.jpg" alt="Programmable Thermostat" width="227" height="159"><br> A <strong>programmable thermostat</strong> - set so that the indoor<br> temperature is allowed to increase overnight and while<br> the house is unoccupied - decreases the number of hours<br> per day the <strong>air conditioner</strong> operates. Running the <strong>air<br> conditioner</strong> less reduces the total <strong>electricity consumption</strong><br> and <strong>lowers utility costs</strong>.</p> </li> <li> <h2>Cross Ventilation and Ceiling Fans</h2> <img src="../img/zeh/ceiling-fan.jpg" alt="Ceiling Fan"> </li> <li> <h2>Full Size Photovoltaic System</h2> <img src="../img/zeh/photovoltaic-system.jpg" alt="Photovoltaic System" width="109" height="206"><br> 4-kW utility-interactive <strong>PV system</strong>. </li> <li> <h2>Improved Indoor Air Quality</h2> </li> </ol> <p>Total Energy Savings:<br> Mortgage Increase:</p> <table width="800" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"> <tr> <th>&nbsp;</th> <th>Standard Home</th> <th>Zero Energy Home</th> </tr> <tr> <th align="left">Savings</th> <td>&nbsp;</td> <td align="center">$52</td> </tr> <tr> <th align="left">Total Monthly Expences</th> <td align="center">$1,802</td> <td align="center">$1,750</td> </tr> <tr> <th align="left">Monthly Energy</th> <td align="center">$139</td> <td align="center">$4</td> </tr> <tr> <th align="left">Monthly Mortgage</th> <td align="center">$1,663</td> <td align="center">$1,746</td> </tr> <tr> <th align="left">Total Mortgage</th> <td align="center">$300,000</td> <td align="center">$262,500</td> </tr> <tr> <th align="left">Lifetime Energy Expenses</th> <td align="center">$50,000</td> <td align="center">$1,500</td> </tr> <tr> <th align="left">Total Cost</th> <td align="center">$250,000</td> <td align="center">$264,000</td> </tr> </table>